## Operator precedence in infix notation by automatic parenthesizing

Posted April 10, 2016 at 01:32 PM | categories: hylang | tags: | View Comments

## Table of Contents

I am continuing some investigation in getting operator precedence right with infix notation. You can fully parenthesize your expressions for this, but it is tedious and hard to read. Apparently in Fortran I (yep, one) the compiler would expand each operator in an expression with a sequence of parentheses to get the precedence right (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operator-precedence_parser )!

Roughly, these were the rules.

- replace + and – with ))+(( and ))-((, respectively;
- replace * and / with )*( and )/(, respectively;
- add (( at the beginning of each expression and after each left parenthesis in the original expression; and
- add )) at the end of the expression and before each right parenthesis in the original expression.

So this

a * b + c ^ d / e

becomes

((((a))*((b)))+(((c)^(d))/((e))))

Not too pretty, but correct! The wikipedia page provides an example C program to implement this, and we adapt it here for hy. The idea is to take an expression as a string, parenthesize it, and then we could eval it.

(defn parenthesize [input] "Fully parenthize the input string." (let [s ""] (+= s "((((") (for [(, i char) (enumerate input)] (cond [(= char "(") (+= s "((((")] [(= char ")") (+= s "))))")] ;; rewrite ^ to ** [(= char "^") (+= s ")**(")] [(= char "*") (+= s "))*((")] [(= char "/") (+= s "))/((")] [(= char "+") (if (or (= 0 i) (in (get input (- i 1)) ["(" "^" "*" "/" "+" "-"])) (+= s "+ ") (+= s ")))+((("))] [(= char "-") (if (or (= 0 i) (in (get input (- i 1)) ["(" "^" "*" "/" "+" "-"])) (+= s "- ") (+= s ")))-((("))] [true (+= s char)])) (+= s "))))") s))

Let's try it out.

(import [infix [*]]) (print (parenthesize "a * b + c ^ d / e"))

((((a ))*(( b )))+((( c )**( d ))/(( e))))

For comparison:

((((a))*((b)))+(((c)^(d))/((e))))

Spaces aside, it looks like we got that right. The spaces should not be a problem for lisp. This is another strategy to get infix notation with operator precedence! Let's see some examples.

(import [infix [*]]) (require infix) (print (eval (nfx (read-str (parenthesize "1 + 2 * 5"))))) (print (eval (nfx (read-str (parenthesize "1 * 2 + 5"))))) (print (eval (nfx (read-str (parenthesize "1 * 2 + 2^2")))))

11 7 6

We can get that string representation easy enough.

(import [infix [*]]) (require infix) (print (eval (nfx (read-str (parenthesize (stringify `(1 + 2)))))))

3

This too is worthy of simplifying the notation with a function.

(defn NFX [code &optional [globals (globals)]] "Evaluate the infix CODE. CODE is stringified, parenthesized, read back and infixed." (import infix) (import serialize) (eval (infix.nfx (read-str (infix.parenthesize (serialize.stringify code)))) globals))

(defmacro NFX [code] "Evaluate the infix CODE. CODE is stringified, parenthesized, read back and infixed." `(do (import infix) (import serialize) (eval (infix.nfx (read-str (infix.parenthesize (serialize.stringify ~code)))))))

Here is a simple example.

;(import [infix [*]]) (require infix) (print (NFX `(1 + 2 * 5))) (print (NFX `((1 + 2) * 5))) (import [numpy :as np]) (print (NFX `(1 + (np.exp 2)))) ; not working because of infix ;(print (NFX `(1 + (np.linspace 0 1 5)))) ;; But this is ok since no infix mangling happens. (let [a (np.linspace 0 1 5)] (print (NFX `(1 + a))))

11 15 8.38905609893 [ 1. 1.25 1.5 1.75 2. ]

That is slightly heavy still, and we can fix it with a new reader macro.

(defreader m [code] `(do (import infix) (import serialize) (eval (infix.nfx (read-str (infix.parenthesize (serialize.stringify ~code)))))))

Since we return code in that reader macro, we have to quote the code. This is debatably more concise than the NFX macro.

(require infix) (print #m`(1 + 2 + 5)) (print #m`(1 + 2 * 5)) (print #m`((1 + 2) * 5)) (import [numpy :as np]) (print #m`((1 + (np.exp 2)))) ;; these are all the same (print (+ 1 (np.exp 2) (* 2 5))) (print #m(`(1 + (np.exp 2) + 2 * 5))) (print (NFX `(1 + (np.exp 2) + 2 * 5)))

8 11 15 8.38905609893 18.3890560989 18.3890560989 18.3890560989

## 1 Another test of a real problem

Here is another test of using an infix notation, this time with operator precedence. Note the use of ^ for exponentiation. The parenthesize function assumes single character operators, and would take some work to use **. Note we still need the space between - and x to avoid a mangling issue with _x in hy.

(import [numpy :as np]) (import [scipy.integrate [odeint]]) (import [scipy.special [jn]]) (import [matplotlib.pyplot :as plt]) (import [infix [*]]) (require infix) (defn fbessel [Y x] "System of 1st order ODEs for the Bessel equation." (setv nu 0.0 y (get Y 0) z (get Y 1)) ;; define the derivatives (setv dydx z ;; the Python way is: "1.0 / x**2 * (-x * z - (x**2 - nu**2) * y)" dzdx #m`((1.0 / x^2) * ((- x) * z - (x^2 - nu^2) * y))) ;; Here is what it was with prefix notation ;; dzdx (* (/ 1.0 (** x 2)) (- (* (* -1 x) z) (* (- (** x 2) (** nu 2)) y)))) ;; return derivatives [dydx dzdx]) (setv x0 1e-15 y0 1.0 z0 0.0 Y0 [y0 z0]) (setv xspan (np.linspace 1e-15 10) sol (odeint fbessel Y0 xspan)) (plt.plot xspan (. sol [[Ellipsis 0]]) :label "Numerical solution") (plt.plot xspan (jn 0 xspan) "r--" :label "Analytical solution") (plt.legend :loc "best") (plt.savefig "bessel-infix-m.png")

I wonder if there is actually some ambiguity in the expression or how it is parenthesized. We get the right answer with:

(1.0 / x^2) * ((- x) * z - (x^2 - nu^2) * y)

but not with:

1.0 / x^2 * ((- x) * z - (x^2 - nu^2) * y))

Let's see if we can see why. Consider 1 / x * a. This should probably be evaluated as (1 / x) * a. This shows the algorithm does not do that.

(import [infix [*]]) (print (nfx (read-str (parenthesize (stringify `(1 / x * a)))))) ; `(1.0 / x^2 * ((- x) * z - (x^2 - nu^2) * y)))))))

(u'/' 1L (u'*' u'x' u'a'))

That reads: 1 / (x * a)

If we had a layer of parentheses we get the right answer.

(import [infix [*]]) (print (nfx (read-str (parenthesize (stringify `((1 / x) * a)))))) ; `((1.0 / x^2) * ((- x) * z - (x^2 - nu^2) * y)))))))

(u'*' (u'/' 1L u'x') u'a')

This reads (1 / x) * a. Our algorithm doesn't do exactly what we expect here. I guess this could be a general issue of neighboring operators with equal precedence.

Related to this, the Wikipedia page points out this example:

- a ^ 2

What does this mean? It is either (-a)^2 or -(a^2). The second is correct based on normal precedence, but the algorithm gives the unary operator - a higher precedence.

(import [infix [parenthesize]]) (print (parenthesize "- a ^ 2")) (print (parenthesize "- (a ^ 2)"))

((((- a )**( 2)))) ((((- ((((a )**( 2))))))))

To get the right thing, you need to use parentheses. Sometimes I do that in real code anyway to make sure what I want to happen does. Maybe some of this can be fixed in our parser function. Probably for another day.

Copyright (C) 2016 by John Kitchin. See the License for information about copying.

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